Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level

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What's in this Book?
        Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level consists of 17 chapters, including five that are devoted to the presentation of the AI Hypothesis. Together they outline the entire history of cell and subcellular life science. The book, over 380 pages long, has 72 text figures, 6 tables, an appendix, a list of abbreviations, over 550 references, an author index, and a subject index. There is a particularly useful custom-designed dictionary called the Super Glossary, which lists over 900 scientific names, technical terms and basic concepts used in the volume. Since mastery of this volume requires some basic knowledge of biology, physics and chemistry, the Super Glossary provides detailed background information from these areas, thus insuring that the reader can, without outside help, understand what is presented in the book. In addition, there is a "road map" entitled Answers to Readers's Queries that explains how best to read the book and make use of the Super Glossary.

For Whom is This Book Written?
        This book is produced for a variety of readers, including science-oriented, career-seeking students; dedicated biology teachers and school-board members concerned about what is currently being taught in the classroom; medical-pharmaceutical researchers looking for an effective guiding paradigm; physicians seeking a better understanding of the treatment of diseases; physics, mathematics or chemistry teachers seeking knowledge of unexplored fields that would benefit their students; and sophisticated and adventuresome readers who are unsatisfied with what they have read about our most precious possession - life itself - and want to know more.

Table of Contents
Preface
i
Answers to Reader's Queries (Read First!)
vii
Introduction
1
1. How It Began on the Wrong Foot---Perhaps Inescapably
5

2. The Same Mistake Repeated in Cell Physiology

8
3. How the Membrane Theory Began
10
4. Evidence for a Cell Membrane Covering All Living Cells
14
5. Evidence for the Cell Content as a Dilute Solution
26
6. Colloid, the Brain Child of a Chemist
29
7. Legacy of the Nearly-Forgotten Pioneers
35
8. Aftermath of the Rout
40
     8.1 The tiny Hungarian enclave under E. Ernst
40
     8.2 The Leningrad school led by Nasonov and Troshin
41
9. Troshin's Sorption Theory for Solute Distribution
43
10. Ling's Fixed Charge Hypothesis (LFCH)
47
     10.1 A theory of selective accumulation of K+ over Na+
48
     10.2 Experimental verifications of the LFCH. (and parts of AIH)
52
11. The Polarized Multilayer Theory of Cell Water
74
     11.1 Background
74
     11.2 Polarized Multilayer Theory of Cell Water and its world-wide confirmation
75
     11.3 Theoretical and practical extensions of the PM theory (and confirmations)
81
12. The Membrane-Pump Theory and Grave Contradictions
109
13. The Physico-chemical Makeup of the Cell Membrane
115
     13.1 Background
115
     13.2 Ionic permeation
119
     13.3 Water traffic into and out of living cells is bulk-phase limited
123
     13.4 Permeability of living cells to water is orders of magnitudes faster than that of the phospholipid bilayer
126
     13.5 Interfacial tension of living cell is too low to match that of a phospholipid bilayer
126
     13.6 Ionophores strongly enhance K+ permeability through authentic continuous phospholipid bilayer but no impact on the K+ permeability of cell membrane of virtually all living cells
129
     13.7 Strongly polarized-and-oriented water in lieu of phospholipid bilayer
131
14. The Living State: Electronic Mechanisms for its Maintenance and Control
135
      14.1 The launching of the association-induction hypothesis
136
           (1) Prelude
136
           (2) The c-value and a quantitative theory for the control of the rank order of ionic absorption
140
           (3) The c-value analogue and its control of protein folding vs. water polarization
143
      14.2 What distinguishes life from death at the cell and below-cell level? The new concept of the living state
148
          (1) The living state
148
          (2) The elementary living machine
152
          (3) What distinguishes the dead state from the active living state
154
          (4) What does food provide: energy or negative entropy?
155
      14.3 Electronic mechanisms of remote, one-on-many control
156
          (1) Electronic induction in proteins
158
          (2) Cooperative interaction as the basis for abrupt and coherent transitions
164
          (3) The classification of drugs and other cardinal adsorbents: EWC, EDC, EIC.   
167
          (4) ATP, the Queen of cardinal adsorbents, as an EWC
168
          (5) What do drugs and other cardinal adsorbents do?
170
          (6) How cardinal adsorbents produce across-the-board uniform change of distant sites
171
          (7) Multiple control of single enzyme sites and gangs of pharmacological effector sites
175
15. Physiological Activities: Electronic Mechanisms and Their Control by ATP, Drugs, Hormones and Other Cardinal Adsorbents
179
      15.1 Selective solute distribution in living cells: cooperativity and control
180
      15.2 The control of ion permeability
194
      15.3 Salt-induced swelling of normal and injured cells
200
            (1) Cell swelling in isotonic KCl
200
            (2) Injury-induced cell swelling in isotonic NaCl
201
      15.4 True active transport across bifacial epithelial cell layers and other bifacial systems
203
            (1) Active Na+ transport across frog skin
205
            (2) Active Rb+ transport into Nitella cell sap
207
      15.5 The resting potential  
            (1) Historic background
209
            (2) The close-contact-surface-adsorption (CSA) theory of cellular electric potentials
216
      15.6 The action potential
225
            (1) Hodgkin-Huxley theory of action potential
225
                  (1.1) No standing Na+ potential
225
                  (1.2) Na channel not specific to Na+
225
            (2) The close-contact surface adsorption (CSA) theory of action potential
226
                  (2.1) The identification of the anionic groups mediating ionic permeation and generating the resting potential as beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups carried on cell surface proteins
229
                  (2.2) The selective preference for ions of the cell surface beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups is mutable, rather than fixed as in the ionic theory
229
                  (2.3) The anionic groups mediating the entry of Na+ into squid axons during an action potential are the same beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups but with a much higher c-value
230
                  (2.4) Swelling of nerve fibers accompanying an action potential
230
                  (2.5) The propagated c-value increase at the surface beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups goes pari passu with the depolarization of cell surface water molecules
231
      16. Summary Plus
.
            16.1 Early history
233
            16.2 The membrane (pump) theory
233
            16.3 Early protoplasm-oriented cell physiologists and their contributions
236
            16.4. Ling's fixed charge hypothesis (LFCH)
237
            16.5 The polarized multilayer (PM) theory of cell water
239
            16.6 The association-induction hypothesis proper
242
                  (1) The resting living state
242
                  (2) Global coherence and internal connectedness in protoplasm
248
                  (3) Interpretation of the four classic physiological manifestations
250
                  (4) Physiological activities as reversible cooperative transitions mediated by inductive effects
254
                  (5) The death state
267
            16.7 A sketch of the history of Mankind's search for understanding of life
270
      17. Epilogue
272
Appendix 1
282
Super-Glossary
288
List of Abbreviations
330
List of Figures, Tables and Equations
333
References
334
Author Index
351
Subject Index
356
Acknowledgments
366
About the Author
371

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